Food and Diet: Ancient Greece vs. Modern Greece

September 28, 2012

When you live in Greece you are reminded everyday of the history of this land. Not only by the ancient temples and ruins scattered all over the country, but by almost all aspects of the culture here; language, music, art and of course the food.

A few years ago, I was asked to give a presentation about the continuity of Greek cuisine from antiquity to the present. While doing research I came across four excellent books (they are cited at the end of this post) and I wanted to share some interesting facts (as far as we know) about the food and food culture of the ancient Greeks and the similarities with today’s Greeks.

Of course we don’t know to what extent the dietary habits of the ancient Greeks have affected today’s dietary habits. The food culture of the ancient Greeks has influenced many cultures and we also know that the food in Greece today is the result of many influences from various cultures as well. But we do see many similarities when comparing the modern Greeks with the ancient Greeks.

Eating Together

We know that the ancient Greeks wanted to establish a civilized lifestyle that separated them from the barbarians and food played an instrumental role in this. The idea of eating together is not a new one; animals eat together and so did the so-called barbarians, but what made a meal “civilized” were specific rules (for example the proper way to serve wine) and conviviality (eating and drinking with good company).

For Greeks, food and eating was not only necessary to satisfy physical needs but it was also a social event. Plutarch, a Greek historian had said, “We do not sit at the table to eat… but to eat together”.

Today, eating in modern Greece is indeed a very social event. It is the norm for people to relax and have great discussions and arguments ranging from politics to relationships while eating dinner or lunch. These meals can last for hours.

Growing up as a Greek-American in the U.S., I remember many times at restaurants, the contrast between my family talking loudly and generally taking forever to eat, while everybody else was quietly eating their food, paying the bill and leaving. Eating alone, even for the younger generations of Greeks is not common. You won’t see people taking a lunch break at a park eating their meal alone. Instead Greeks will either order all together at the office, sometimes sharing food they have brought from home. Reservations for restaurants are not as common in Greece either, and if they are made, it is assumed that the table will be reserved for the whole evening as there is no way of knowing when the diners will leave.

The Three Fundamentals

The 3 fundamentals were the most important ingredients for the Ancient Greek: Bread, Wine and Olive Oil. This was part of the dietary model or what we can call food ideology. For the Greeks these foods represented frugality and the simple life along with honey and figs. It is thought that this represented loyalty to their country since these fundamental foods were produced in Greece and therefore it was not necessary to import rare luxury type foods, they were happy with their own. It also is thought that it had to do with areas that should be conquered; anywhere that olives and vines grew should be conquered and be Greek.

Then: For Greeks wine was especially important at the symposia, which was a meeting of men for drinking, music and intellectual discussion. Greeks gave it medicinal properties, and there were even descriptions of proper and improper drinking.

Now: It is thought that much of the modern wine production practices today, are influenced by the practices of the ancient Greeks. Wine is also a very important part of Greek culture today. Gone are the days when Greece was only known for its retsina (wine that has had resin added to it). Today Greece has a high quality wine production using Greek grapes varieties that appear to be similar to the variety of grapes used in ancient times, and that are grown only in Greece. People are starting to notice Greek wines; at this year’s Decanter World Wine Awards for example, 72% of all Greek wines entered this year received an award.

Then: Bread of course was a necessity in the ancient Greek diet. Greeks had a large variety of breads or bread-like products and also made them for special occasions. At some point it appears that the Greeks had 50 to 70 different types of breads.

Now: Bread is an extremely important part of the Greek cuisine; it is what nurtures the people, most Greeks cannot even imagine a meal without bread even if it is a rice or pasta dish. It is common when you go to the taverns here to be served a whole loaf of bread for 4 people…and you are expected to eat it.

Olive Oil
Then: Olive oil was used in almost every single item that was on the table of the ancient Greek, and although there was other oil available in the Mediterranean, olive oil was the only one used for cooking.

Now: Olive oil is even more important today to the Greeks then it was in ancient Greece. Greeks are the highest consumers of olive oil in the world, with a consumption of 26 liters a year per person, which is about ½ a liter a week (2 cups). Oil is used for almost all cooking, and although there has been an effort to promote other types of vegetable oils, Greeks have not really been persuaded (rightfully so).

Olive oil also holds a special position in the Greek-Orthodox religion; it is used in many ceremonies, but also in the oil lamps in the churches and at homes.

Honey and Figs
Honey and figs were also part of the Greek food ideology. Both produced in the land. They were used in both sweet and savory dishes. Today honey plays an extremely important role in the Greek lifestyle. As expected, it is used in the diet as a main sweetener to be consumed with herbal teas, yogurt, fruit, walnuts and in many sweets. It is also considered to have medicinal qualities.

Meat was for savages

Then: Meat was generally associated with festivity, luxury and sacrifice and therefore it was not a main food source. But it also separated the “men” from the “barbarians”. According to the Greeks, those who consumed meat and milk were nomad hunter-gatherers as opposed to civilized people who farmed the land and could transform nature (grapes=wine, wheat=bread, olives=olive oil).

Apart from barbarian connotations, it seems that meat was consumed mainly in relation to sacrifice. In the book Food, A Culinary History it says that cautious estimates show that Greeks consumed no more than 4 pounds of meat a year. Economics also played a role: the animals were more useful alive providing milk for cheese and wool.

Now: In Modern Greece the traditional Greek diet (circa 1960) had very little meat. This had to do with religious and economic reasons like their ancient ancestors. Greek Orthodox Greeks would fast 180-200 days a year. Finances also did not allow the average Greek to eat meat very often; as in ancient times, Greeks used their animals for milk, making cheese and yogurt rather than meat.

It also should be noted that sacrificing practices seem to have continued through the byzantine period where it was common to kill animals and roast them during religious seasons. We see a similar custom with modern Greeks and the tradition of roasting the lamb in public as a celebration for Easter.

In the past 50 years however things have changed dramatically. The socioeconomic status of Greeks has changed and as a result, more and more Greeks have moved to big cities, do not follow the religious fasts, and eat much more meat than they used to.

Photo: Olive Harvest on Attic black-figured neck-amphora

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  • Reply Joanne McDaniel May 17, 2017 at 2:52 am

    This is a great article explaining the before and now of Greek culture. It is always great to see how the past has contributed to the present foods we enjoy. Mediterranean food has come a long way and many regions have influenced the recipes. It is great that no matter what you like, there is bound to be a dish you will enjoy. Thanks for sharing this great information, your readers are sure to learn something new and exciting about the Mediterranean foods they love.

  • Reply Marina Tsikou April 25, 2017 at 10:00 am

    Hi Elena, I really enjoyed this article, always eye-opening as the rest of your blog – helps me understand better the Greek philosophy of eating together and introduce it to our guests from abroad. Could you please which are the books mentioned in the beginning of your blogpost?
    Thank you in advance,

  • Reply LOLA February 6, 2017 at 8:32 pm

    Hi my name is Lola your article helped me because,I am doing this history project on modern and ancient greece food and this website helped me get a lot of information THANK YOU VERY SO MUCH

  • Reply jalesa February 6, 2017 at 6:27 pm

    thank you so much i have a history project and i decided to do it on greek food and this article really helped THANK YOU SO MUCH

  • Reply Eden February 6, 2017 at 5:02 am

    Thank you! This information really helped me with my school project on ancient Greek food traditions vs now.

  • Reply Mimi November 13, 2015 at 3:29 am

    Hello Elena,

    Do you mind giving me the other three books that you referenced? I only see one reference which was Food, A Culinary History. Thank you

  • Reply Dakota October 6, 2015 at 4:27 pm

    Thank you so much for putting this on the internet! I am doing a school assignment on Ancient Greece and how it has influenced the Modern-Day Greeks, I decided to go more towards comparing their culture and this has help swimmingly with the diet portion.

  • Reply Ciara Zuniga May 29, 2015 at 1:15 pm

    Dear Elena,
    You helped me with my gateway project and I got an A+
    You are a very talented girl who can explain how ancient greece food has changed over the years
    because of you I faced my fear of embarrassing myself by how awful my speech was thank you and have a wonderful life.
    Ciara Zuniga

    • Reply littlebear8864 May 10, 2019 at 1:30 pm

      same. im working on a school project and i used this site for notes

  • Reply Jasmine May 11, 2015 at 7:08 am


  • Reply Elizabeth Imas-Tsimourtos May 23, 2014 at 5:20 pm

    Hello Elena
    I was searching the web for info about history of greek cuisine,I’m a culinary student and we have a menu proyect to present, bse in any theme we like, I decided to work on greek cuisnie and what you had wrote it was a temendous help!! thank you and keep up with the good work….Best Elizabeth

  • Reply Anonymous May 19, 2014 at 1:28 pm


  • Reply Annie April 13, 2014 at 5:54 am

    Fascinating! Thank you so much for sharing this information.

  • Reply bayou January 21, 2014 at 6:38 pm

    I love all the recepies that you made they are delicious. Iadvise people to try her recipes.

  • Reply Lucy November 21, 2013 at 2:51 am

    HI I just wanted to let you know how much I’m enjoying your blog. I’m of Spanish ancestry and we always ate the way the Greeks eat. Over the years I adopted an Australian way of eating and I’ve put on so much weight. I’m back to my old ancestral diet, which is exactly described in this post and the rest of your site. Needless to say, I’m losing weight! I’ve also lost those horrible protein pimples on my arms!! thank you and keep up with the great information.

    • Reply Elena Paravantes RDN November 23, 2013 at 10:58 am

      Thank you Lucy! I’m happy that you enjoy OliveTomato. I hope it has been helpful for you.

  • Reply Christos Zikos February 28, 2013 at 9:09 am

    Kalossebrika (It is nice to meet you).

    • Reply Elena Paravantes RDN March 6, 2013 at 4:48 am

      Thank you Christos!

      • Reply Jessie Samuels May 11, 2020 at 10:50 am

        Omg aren’t you like famous?!?!

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